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     CHRONOLOGIUM ACADEMICUS ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

  1.   At about the time of Leif Ericsson’s landfall in North America (1000 AD):
  a.  Gunpowder was discovered in China;
  b.  Avicenna wrote The Canon of Medicine;
  c.  The Druse sect of Islam was founded; and,
  d.  The musical staff notation system was developed by Guido d’Arezzo.

  2.   At about the time Trial by Jury was established in England (1164):
  a.  The Incas flourished in the Cuzco area of Peru;
  b.  Peter Lombard wrote The Four Books of Sentences;
  c.  Construction of Notre Dame de Paris was begun; and,
  d.  Maimonides wrote his Guide For the Perplexed.

  3.   At about the time Christopher Columbus reached the New World (1492):
  a.  The Spanish Inquisition was established by Ferdinand and Isabella;
  b.  Leonardo da Vinci painted The Last Supper;
  c.  Cossacks first formed into bands in the Ukraine; and,
  d.  Double-entry bookkeeping was introduced by Luca di Pacioli.

  4.   At about the time of the Pilgrim landing (1620):
  a.  Galileo Galilei flourished in Italy;
  b.  The Romanov Dynasty was founded in Russia;
  c.  The slide rule was invented by William Oughtred; and,
  d.  Hugo Grotius wrote The Law of War and Peace.

  5.   During the American Revolutionary War (1775-83):
  a.  Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Franz Joseph Haydn flourished in Europe;
  b.  Adam Smith wrote The Wealth of Nations;
  c.  Capt. James Cook discovered Hawaii;
  d.  Immanuel Kant wrote The Critique of Pure Reason; and,
  e.  Franz Mesmer introduced hypnotism through his Dissertation on Animal Magnetism.

  6.   The same year the Bastille was stormed (1789):
  a.  George Washington became president;
  b.  The mutiny aboard H.M.S. Bounty occurred;
  c.  Uranium was discovered by Martin Klaproth; and,
  d.  The Anglican Church became the Episcopal Church in the United States.

  7.   At about the time the Monroe Doctrine was declared (1823):
  a.  Shaka Zulu was Paramount Chief of the Zulus;
  b.  Franz Schubert composed his Symphony No. 8, “Unfinished;”
  c.  Sir Walter Scott wrote Ivanhoe; and,
  d.  Hieroglyphics were deciphered by Jean François Champollion.

  8.   At about the time of the American Civil War (1860-65):
  a.  Charles Darwin wrote The Origin of Species;
  b.  Russia’s serfs were emancipated by Czar Alexander II;
  c.  Victor Hugo wrote Les miserables;
  d.  Karl Marx wrote Das Kapital; and,
  e.  Richard Wagner composed Tristan und Isolde.

  9.   The same year that Marcel Proust started writing Remembrance of Things Past (1913):
  a.  A near-riot occurred at the premiere of Igor Stravinsky’s startlingly dissonant Rite of Spring;
  b.  Henry Moseley revised the Periodic Table of the elements via the assignment of atomic
  c.  Mammography was developed by Albert Salomon; and,
  d. The ozone layer of the upper atmosphere was discovered by Charles Fabry.

  10.  During World War II (1939-45):
  a.  John Steinbeck wrote The Grapes of Wrath;
  b.  Leon Trotsky was assassinated in Mexico by a Stalinist agent;
  c.  Jean-Paul Sartre wrote Being and Nothingness; and,
  d.  John Von Neumann & Oskar Morgenstern applied game theory to economics.